Minimum requirements for physiotherapy curriculum-Biomechanics contents

in Human

BIOMECHANICS contents [Model I]:

Axis and planes

Definition of mechanics, Force: Diagrammatic representation, Measurement, Classification, Action, Concurrent force, coplanar force, Parallel force, Composition and resolution of force, Forces acting on human body

Momentum, inertia, action and reaction, friction, rotation about a pivot, angle of pull of muscle, assistance and resistance to movement, momentum of force and practical application, torque

Gravity: Definition, LOG, COG, Mechanics of position of gravity

Equilibrium: BOS, Types, Uses of equilibrium board, Equilibrium fixation and stabilization.

Energy (potential and kinetic energy), work and power

Lever: Action, order, and position of fulcrum, Lever in human body, levers at home and work places, levers in physiotherapy

Tools and other mechanical devices: Pulley: System of pulley, Types, double pulley block, uses of pulley, Uses of Pulley in Physiotherapy

Elasticity: definition, Stress, strain, hook's law,

Springs: properties of springs, series and parallel spring

Joints: Classification of joints, peripheral joints, movements: physiological and joint play

Mechanics of muscle: Types of contraction, angle of pull, action of muscle

Biomechanics of joints of  Lower extremity

  Biomechanics of joints of  upper extremity

  Biomechanics of joints of spine [Related to spinal movement and function]

Gait: analysis, pathological gait, Deviations

Posture: postural deviations

Model II


  1. A. Lower limb:

Subject description: This course focuses on the human mechanics. The theory of

mechanics will be covered. Practical examples will be given of applied mechanics to the

human lower limb.

Main objective: To be able to analyze biomechanical issues concerning the lower limb.

Topics to be covered:

  • Introduction to human biomechanics and kinesiology.
  • Science of forces, Newton's laws. (Forces in the metric system.)
  • Equilibrium.
  • Action and counter action.
  • Momentum and pivots.
  • Friction.
  • Sinus, Tangus and Cosinus.
  • Types of joints.
  • Applied human biomechanics, examples from the lower limb like the effect of shoes,

running and kicking a ball.

Muscle movement and joint movement and the biomechanical changes occurring

B. Upper limb and the walking pattern:


Subject description: In this subject the human mechanics focus on the upper limb and the

walking pattern. The student will assess the movements, learn to explain the forces and gain

insight into how the body copes with forces and how the body influences the forces. A

problem solving approach will be used.

Main objective: To be able analyse a mechanical situation concerning the upper limb or

the walking pattern.

Topics to be covered:

  • Forces in the walking pattern, forces when walking with walking aids.
  • Biomechanics in the upper limb inclusive of extensions in normal live like using a

broomstick, tennis playing, walking with a stick and driving a wheelchair.

  • The scapulo-humeral ritme.

 C. human mechanics of the spine and the head.


Subject description: In this subject the focus is on the human mechanics of the spine and

the head. Also changes in the body over a life span will be discussed.

Main objective: To be able to rationalise a mechanical consequence of pathology in the


Topics to be covered:

  • Inter vertebral forces.
  • Biomechanics in the spine in different positions.
  • Changes over a life span.

Biomechanics of functional activities such as running, jumping and swimming and

relating these activities to dysfunction

Author Box
Saleh ALoraibi has 1 articles online

Saleh AL-Oraibi, PhD, MSCP, MHPC

Assistant professor, Allied Health Faculty

Physiotherapy Department

Hashemite University-Jordan

E-mail: or

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This article was published on 2011/07/20